Histopathological Comparison between Bone Marrowand Periodontium-derived Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration in Rabbit Calvaria

Z Kadkhoda, A Saffarpour, F Azmoodeh, S Adibi, A Khoshzaban, N Bahrami

Abstract


Background: Periodontitis is an important oral disease. Stem cell therapy has found its way in treatment of many diseases.

Objective: To evaluate the regenerative potential of periodontal ligament-derived stem cells (PDLSCs) and osteoblast differentiated from PDLSC in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and pre-osteoblasts in calvarial defects.

Methods: After proving the existence of surface markers by flow cytometry, BM-MSCs were differentiated into osteoblasts. 5 defects were made on rabbit calvaria. 3 of them were first covered with collagen membrane and then with BM-MSCs, PDLSCs, and pre-osteoblasts. The 4th defect was filled with collagen membrane and the 5th one was served as control. After 4 weeks, histological (quantitative) and histomorphological (qualitative) surveys were performed.

Results: Both cell lineages were positive for CD-90 cell marker, which was specifically related to stem cells. Alizarin red staining was done for showing mineral material. RT-PCR set up for the expression of Cbfa1 gene, BMP4 gene, and PGLAP gene, confirmed osteoblast differentiation. The findings indicated that although PDLSCs and pre-osteoblasts could be used for bone regeneration, the rate of regeneration in BM-MSCs-treated cavities was more significant (p<0.0001).

Conclusion: The obtained results are probably attributable to the effective micro-environmental signals caused by different bone types and the rate of cell maturation.


Keywords


Stem cell; Periodontium; Osteoblasts; Bone regeneration; Periodontitis; Periodontal ligament; Mouth diseases; Mesenchymal stem cells; Cell- and tissue-based therapy; Cell Lineage

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 pISSN: 2008-6489
 eISSN: 2008-6490