A Survey of Infection in Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

S R Safayi, F Shahi, M Ghalamkari, M Mirzania, M Khatuni, F Hirmandi Niasar

Abstract


Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially cure for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients who undergone HSCT are at increased risk of infection due to impaired immunity.

Objective: To evaluate the rate of bacterial, viral and fungal infection and its relationship with 2-year overall survival of AML patients who had undergone HSCT.

Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of 49 patients who underwent allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from full-matched donors at BMT Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2013. All autologous transplantations and promyelocytic leukemia (PML) transplantations were excluded.

Results: All patients, except for one, had fever for a mean of 7 days post-transplantation and received broad-spectrum antibiotic. The rate of severe sepsis was 6.1%. None of the patients developed fungal infection during admission. The rate of admission due to sepsis after discharge was 27% in the alive group (mean onset of 54 days), and 73% in the deceased group (mean onset of 52 days) (p<0.05). The most common site of infection was lung (70%). The rate of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia (positive PP65) was 20% during the 2-year period after HSCT.

Conclusion: The rate of infection was a negative prognostic factor for 2-year overall survival. The rate of CMV antigenemia is less than similar studies (51%), which could be due to full-matched donor-recipients requiring less immunosuppression.


Keywords


Bone marrow transplantation; Infection; Acute myeloid leukemia

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 pISSN: 2008-6489
 eISSN: 2008-6490